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你每天买买买的时候交了多少隐形的税?(双语)

2019-07-10 14:10

来源:沪江

作者:

  Taxes are obviously necessary in order for a society to provide public goods and services to its citizens. Unfortunately, taxes also impose costs on citizens both directly (because if an individual gives money to the government, she doesn't have the money any longer) and indirectly (because taxes introduce inefficiency or deadweight loss) into markets.

  为了社会能够向公民提供公共产品和服务,税收显然是必要的。不幸的是,税收也直接(因为如果一个人把钱给政府,她就不再拥有这笔钱了)或间接(因为税收导致低效率或无谓的损失)地强制公民将资本投入市场。

  Because the inefficiency that taxes introduce grows more than proportional to the amount of a tax, it makes sense for the government to structure taxes so that a lot of markets get taxed a little bit rather than so that a few markets get taxed a lot.

  因为税收带来的低效率增长超过了税收的比例,所以政府要合理地安排税收结构,在多个市场少量征税,而不是在少数市场大量征税。

  Therefore, a number of different taxes exist, and they can be categorized in a number of ways. Let's take a look at some of the common tax breakdowns.

  因此,存在许多不同的税种,它们可以按照多种方式进行分类。让我们来看看一些常见的税收细目。

  Income Taxes

  所得税

  An income tax, not surprisingly, is a tax on the money that an individual or household makes.

  毫无疑问,所得税是对个人或家庭的收入征税。

  This income can either come from labor income such as wages, salaries, and bonuses or from investment income such as interest, dividends, and capital gains. Income taxes are generally stated as a percentage of income, and this percentage can vary as the amount of a household's income varies.

  这种收入既可以来自劳动所得,如工资、薪水和奖金,也可以来自投资收益,如利息、股利和资本收益。所得税通常以收入的百分比表示,这个百分比可以随着家庭收入的变化而变化。

  Consumption Taxes

  消费税

  Consumption taxes, on the other hand, are levied when an individual or household buys stuff.

  另一方面,消费税是在个人或家庭在购买货物时征收的。

  In the U.S., the most common consumption tax is a sales tax, which is levied as a percentage of the price of most items that are sold to consumers.

  在美国,最常见的消费税是销售税(营业税),它是按销售给消费者的大多数商品价格的百分比征收的。

  In China, the sales tax is replaced by the quite similar value-added tax. (The main difference between a sales tax and a value-added tax is that the latter is levied at each stage of production and is thus levied on both businesses and households.)

  在中国,销售税被相当类似的增值税所取代。(销售税和增值税的主要区别在于,增值税是在生产的每个阶段都要征收的,因此对企业和家庭都征收。)

  Consumption taxes can also take the form of excise or luxury taxes, which are taxes on specific items (cars, alcohol, etc.) at rates that may differ from the overall sales tax rate. Many e conomists feel that consumption taxes are more efficient than income taxes in fostering economic growth.

  营业税也可以采取消费税或奢侈品税的形式,这是针对特定项目(汽车、酒精等)的税收,税率可能与总体销售税不同。许多经济学家认为,在促进经济增长方面,消费税比所得税更有效。

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